A #Water War Is Brewing Over the Dwindling #ColoradoRiver – ProPublica #COriver #aridification

Series: Killing the Colorado

The Water Crisis in the West

On a crisp day this fall I drove southeast from Grand Junction, Colorado, into the Uncompahgre Valley, a rich basin of row crops and hayfields. A snow line hung like a bowl cut around the upper cliffs of the Grand Mesa, while in the valley some farmers were taking their last deliveries of water, sowing winter wheat and onions. I turned south at the farm town of Delta onto Route 348, a shoulder-less two-lane road lined with irrigation ditches and dent corn still hanging crisp on their browned stalks. The road crossed the Uncompahgre River, and it was thin, nearly dry.

The Uncompahgre Valley, stretching 34 miles from Delta through the town of Montrose, is, and always has been, an arid place. Most of the water comes from the Gunnison River, a major tributary of the Colorado, which courses out of the peaks of the Elk Range through the cavernous and sun-starved depths of the Black Canyon, one rocky and inaccessible valley to the east. In 1903, the federal government backed a plan hatched by Uncompahgre farmers to breach the ridge with an enormous tunnel and then in the 1960s to build one of Colorado’s largest reservoirs above the Black Canyon called Blue Mesa. Now that tunnel feeds a neural system of water: 782 miles worth of successively smaller canals and then dirt ditches, laterals and drains that turn 83,000 Western Colorado acres into farmland. Today, the farm association in this valley is one of the largest single users of Colorado River water outside of California.

I came to this place because the Colorado River system is in a state of collapse. It is a collapse hastened by climate change but also a crisis of management. In 1922, the seven states in the river basin signed a compact splitting the Colorado equally between its upper and lower halves; later, they promised additional water to Mexico, too. Near the middle, they put Lake Powell, a reserve for the northern states, and Lake Mead, a storage node for the south. Over time, as an overheating environment has collided with overuse, the lower half — primarily Arizona and California — has taken its water as if everything were normal, straining both the logic and the legal interpretations of the compact. They have also drawn extra releases from Lake Powell, effectively borrowing straight out of whatever meager reserves the Upper Basin has managed to save there.

This much has become a matter of great, vitriolic dispute. What is undeniable is that the river flows as a much-diminished version of its historical might. When the original compact gave each half the rights to 7.5 million acre-feet of water, the river is estimated to have flowed with as much as 18 million acre-feet each year. Over the 20th century, it averaged closer to 15. Over the past two decades, the flow has dropped to a little more than 12. In recent years, it has trickled at times with as little as 8.5. All the while the Lower Basin deliveries have remained roughly the same. And those reservoirs? They are fast becoming obsolete. Now the states must finally face the consequential question of which regions will make their sacrifice first. There are few places that reveal how difficult it will be to arrive at an answer than the Western Slope of Colorado.

In Montrose, I found the manager of the Uncompahgre Valley Water Users Association, Steve Pope, in his office atop the squeaky stairs of the same Foursquare that the group had built at the turn of the last century. Pope, bald, with a trimmed white beard, sat amid stacks of plat maps and paper diagrams of the canals, surrounded by LCD screens with spreadsheets marking volumes of water and their destinations. On the wall, a historic map showed the farms, wedged between the Uncompahgre River and where it joins the Gunnison in Delta, before descending to their confluence with the Colorado in Grand Junction. “I’m sorry for the mess,” he said, plowing loose papers aside.

The Colorado River Basin…and it’s Plumbing. pic.twitter.com/ntidBDRjGE

— Dustin Mulvaney (@DustinMulvaney) September 17, 2021

” data-image-caption=”

Colorado River Basin Plumbing. Credit: Lester Doré/Mary Moran via Dustin Mulvaney and Twitter

” data-medium-file=”https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?fit=300%2C241&ssl=1″ data-large-file=”https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?fit=863%2C694&ssl=1″ decoding=”async” width=”863″ height=”694″ data-src=”https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=863%2C694&ssl=1″ alt=”” class=”wp-image-128626 jetpack-lazy-image” data-recalc-dims=”1″ data-lazy-srcset=”https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=1024%2C824&ssl=1 1024w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=300%2C241&ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=768%2C618&ssl=1 768w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=1536%2C1235&ssl=1 1536w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=505%2C406&ssl=1 505w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?w=2048&ssl=1 2048w, https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?w=1726&ssl=1 1726w” data-lazy-sizes=”(max-width: 863px) 100vw, 863px” data-lazy-src=”https://i0.wp.com/coyotegulch.blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/plumbing-colorado-river-lester-dore-mary-moran-via-dustin-mulvaney-twitter.jpeg?resize=863%2C694&is-pending-load=1#038;ssl=1″ data-srcset=”https://news.google.com/data:image/gif;base64,https://news.google.com/R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAIBRAA7″/>Colorado River Basin Plumbing. Credit: Lester Doré/Mary Moran via Dustin Mulvaney and Twitter

All of this matters now not just because the river, an unwieldy network of human-controlled plumbing, is approaching a threshold where it could become inoperable, but because much of the recent legal basis for the system is about to dissolve. In 2026, the Interim Guidelines the states rely on, a Drought Contingency Plan and agreements with Mexico will all expire. At the very least, this will require new agreements. It also demands a new way of thinking that matches the reality of the heating climate and the scale of human need. But before that can happen, the states will need to restore something that has become even more scarce than the water: trust.

The northern states see California and Arizona reveling in profligate use, made possible by the anachronistic rules of the compact that effectively promise them water when others have none. It’s enabled by the mechanistic controls at the Hoover Dam, which releases the same steady flow no matter how little snow falls across the Rocky Mountains. California flood-irrigates alfalfa crops destined for cattle markets in the Middle East, while Arizona takes water it does not need and pumps it underground to build up its own reserves. In 2018, an Arizona water agency admitted it was gaming the timing of its orders to avoid rations from the river (though it characterized the moves as smart use of the rules). In 2021, in a sign of the growing wariness, at least one Colorado water official alleged California was repeating the scheme. California water officials say this is a misunderstanding. Yet to this day, because California holds the most senior legal rights on the river, the state has avoided having a single gallon of reductions imposed on it.

Like this:

Like Loading…

Comments are closed.